Political retribution for California?


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FILE - In this March 13, 2018, file photo, President Donald Trump talks with reporters as he reviews border wall prototypes in San Diego. Disputes over Trump's border wall and California's bullet train have become mixed together as the feud between the White House and the nation's most populous state intensifies. The Trump administration said on Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, it plans to cancel or claw back $3.5 billion in federal dollars allocated to California's high-speed rail project. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci, File)

FILE - In this March 13, 2018, file photo, President Donald Trump talks with reporters as he reviews border wall prototypes in San Diego. Disputes over Trump's border wall and California's bullet train have become mixed together as the feud between the White House and the nation's most populous state intensifies. The Trump administration said on Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, it plans to cancel or claw back $3.5 billion in federal dollars allocated to California's high-speed rail project. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci, File)


FILE - This Feb. 26, 2015, photo shows a full-scale mock-up of a high-speed train, displayed at the Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. The Trump administration plans to cancel $929 million in U.S. money for California's beleaguered high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion it's already spent. The U.S. Department of Transportation announcement Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, came after President Donald Trump last week threatened to make California pay back the money awarded to build the train between Los Angeles and San Francisco. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)


FILE - In this Feb. 12, 2019, file photo, Calif., Gov. Gavin Newsom receives applause after delivering his first State of the State address to a joint session of the legislature at the Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. Newsom declared in his first State of the State address last week that he planned to scale back California's high-speed rail project and focus immediately on building 171 miles of track in central California. The Trump administration said Tuesday, Feb. 19, that it plans to cancel $929 million awarded to California's high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion that it has already spent. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)


Border wall, bullet train: California vs. Trump escalates

By KATHLEEN RONAYNE

Associated Press

Wednesday, February 20

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) — Disputes over President Donald Trump’s border wall and California’s bullet train are intensifying the feud between the White House and the nation’s most populous state.

The Trump administration on Tuesday said it plans to cancel or claw back $3.5 billion in federal dollars allocated to California’s high-speed rail project, a move Gov. Gavin Newsom called “political retribution” for the state’s lawsuit against Trump’s declaration of a national emergency. California led a 16-state coalition in filing the suit Monday, challenging Trump’s power to declare an emergency to earn more money to build a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border.

“It’s no coincidence that the Administration’s threat comes 24 hours after California led 16 states in challenging the President’s farcical ‘national emergency,’” Newsom said in a statement. “This is clear political retribution by President Trump, and we won’t sit idly by.”

It’s the latest spat between Trump and California, which has styled itself as the Democratic-led “resistance” to the administration. Newsom, less than two months into his tenure, has appeared more eager to hit back at Trump than former California Gov. Jerry Brown. The lawsuit is California’s 46th against the Trump administration.

Using a broad interpretation of his executive powers, Trump declared an emergency last week to obtain wall funding beyond the $1.4 billion Congress approved for border security. The move allows the president to bypass Congress to use money from the Pentagon and other budgets.

Trump’s use of the emergency declaration has drawn bipartisan criticism and faces a number of legal challenges.

Still the president has told reporters he expects to prevail.

“I think in the end we’re going to be very successful with the lawsuit,” Trump told reporters, calling it an “open and closed” case.

Trump had earlier singled out California for its lead role in the suit, seeking to link the state’s high-speed rail project to his plan for the wall.

On Twitter, Trump claimed the “failed Fast Train project” was beset by “world record setting” cost overruns and had become “hundreds of times more expensive than the desperately needed Wall!”

The estimated cost for a San Francisco-to-Los Angeles train has more than doubled to $77 billion. That’s about 13 times the $5.7 billion Trump sought unsuccessfully from Congress to build the wall.

Hours later, the U.S. Department of Transportation told California it planned to cancel nearly $1 billion in federal money allocated to the rail project and wanted the state to return $2.5 billion it had already spent.

Trump’s comments about a “failed” project followed Newsom’s comments last week that the current plan for an LA-San Francisco train would cost too much and take too long. Instead, he said he’d focus immediately on a line through the Central Valley while still doing environmental work on the full line. That work is a requirement for keeping the federal money.

Still, the U.S. Department of Transportation said Newsom’s remarks reinforced concerns about the project’s ability to deliver. The department wrote Newsom’s comments mark a “significant retreat from the State’s initial vision and commitment and frustrated the purpose for which the Federal funding was awarded.”

California Republicans who have long called the project a waste of money applauded the Trump administration’s move to take back the money.

“It is time to move on from the broken high-speed rail project and redirect our efforts to infrastructure projects that work for Californians,” said U.S. House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy of Bakersfield, a city on the train’s route.

But Newsom said the state intends to keep the money. Losing it would be a major blow to the chronically underfunded project.

“This is California’s money, and we are going to fight for it,” he said.

The agreement with the federal government allows the administration to withhold or take back the money if the state fails to make “adequate progress” or “complete the project or one of its tasks.”

If the federal government decides to take the money back, it doesn’t have to wait for California to write a check. Instead it could withhold money from other transportation projects.

Tuesday’s comments won’t be the last; the administration has given California until March 5 to formally respond.

Associated Press writer Catherine Lucey in Washington contributed.

Trump wants California to pay back billions for bullet train

By KATHLEEN RONAYNE

Associated Press

Wednesday, February 20

SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) — The Trump administration said Tuesday that it plans to cancel $929 million awarded to California’s high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion that it has already spent.

The U.S. Department of Transportation announcement follows through on President Donald Trump’s threats to claw back $3.5 billion that the federal government gave to California to build a bullet train between Los Angeles and San Francisco.

Gov. Gavin Newsom vowed a fight to keep the money and said the move was in response to California again suing the administration , this time over Trump’s emergency declaration to pay for a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border.

“This is clear political retribution by President Trump, and we won’t sit idly by,” Newsom said in a statement. “This is California’s money, and we are going to fight for it.”

It’s the latest spat between the White House and California. Trump earlier in the day linked the emergency declaration lawsuit to the train, noting that California filed the challenge on behalf of 16 states.

“California, the state that has wasted billions of dollars on their out of control Fast Train, with no hope of completion, seems in charge!” the president tweeted.

The train project has faced repeated cost overruns and delays since California voters approved it in 2008. The Trump administration argued Tuesday that the state hasn’t provided required matching dollars and can’t complete certain construction work by a 2022 deadline.

Newsom declared in his first State of the State address last week that he planned to scale back the project and focus immediately on building 171 miles (275 kilometers) of track in central California. His office said he still plans to complete the full line, although he said the current plan would cost too much and take too long.

He’s pledged to continue environmental work on the full line, which is required to keep the federal money.

But the U.S. Department of Transportation said Newsom’s comments last week reinforced the administration’s concerns about the project.

“Governor Newsom presented a new proposal that represents a significant retreat from the State’s initial vision and commitment and frustrates the purpose for which Federal funding was awarded,” read the letter outlining the case for cancelling the money.

Congress nearly a decade ago approved the $929 million that Trump wants to cancel. The state has not started spending that money. But it has already spent the extra $2.5 billion that Trump now wants back.

The U.S. Department of Transportation said it is “actively exploring every legal option” to get back the money.

The grant agreement between California and the federal government, signed in 2010, outlines several scenarios in which the federal government could take the money back. It can take the money back, for example, if the grantee fails to make “adequate progress” or “fails to complete the project or one of its tasks” or if the state doesn’t meet its matching fund requirements.

If the federal government decides to take the money back, it doesn’t have to wait for California to write a check. The agreement states the federal government could offset the money it would pay California for different transportation or other projects.

California hasn’t yet fully matched the $2.5 billion in stimulus money. It’s in the process of doing so now, using money from the 2008 bond passed by voters and revenue from the state’s cap-and-trade program. It can’t unlock the $929 million grant until it completes its match.

Still, the California High-Speed Rail Authority has already budgeted for the full $3.5 billion. It’s put toward constructing a 119-mile (191.5-kilometer) segment of track in the Central Valley expected to cost $10.6 billion.

Dan Richard, the outgoing chair of the California High-Speed Rail Authority’s board of directors, said people’s livelihoods depend on the project through jobs and other economic development in the Central Valley.

“It would be very important to avoid anything that would disrupt the economic recovery in the Central Valley that has been brought about by high-speed rail,” he said.

The Conversation

Stories of African-American women aging with HIV: ‘My life wasn’t what I hoped it to be’

February 20, 2019

Author: Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Maryland

Disclosure statement: Thurka Sangaramoorthy does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Sophia Harrison, 51, is a single mother of two, with an extended family to support. She has lived with epilepsy her entire life; she suffers from hypertension; and she is a breast cancer survivor.

Yet more challenging than any of these was learning she was HIV-positive.

“I was crying for at least six months,” she said of learning she was HIV positive 10 years ago. “It hurt me real bad.”

Harrison’s story is far from unusual. She is one of about 140,000 African-American women living and aging with HIV. While she is grateful to be alive, she faces multiple health challenges in addition to HIV, like hypertension, diabetes and breast cancer, that disproportionately plague African-American women. And they often struggle to take care of themselves and their families because of limited resources. In working with older African-American women who are HIV-positive, I learned about their individual stories.

Victims of HIV’s early days

In the 1980s and 1990s, an HIV diagnosis often equated to a death sentence, with many given weeks or months to live. Much of the public health focus in the early years was on white gay men in urban centers.

Early stories of women living with HIV focused on sex workers and injection drug users, those who were highly stigmatized by society for behaviors it deemed immoral. Conversations about women with HIV were silenced and shamed, causing delays in testing and treatment for women. HIV research specifically excluded women, perpetuating the myth that women were not at risk for HIV. Even today, women represent less than a quarter of clinical trial participants for HIV medications, and prevention strategies for women lag far behind those for men.

As a result, African-American women living in places like Washington, D.C. and Maryland were not tested routinely or well informed about HIV until they fell seriously ill, I found as part of my research. Many who were in their 20s and 30s when they were first diagnosed were in a state of shock and denial, certain that they would not live to see their next birthday.

My research, which has involved ethnographic and oral history interviews with 45 women over five years, reveals that HIV for African-American women has never been a single issue, separate from histories of addiction, trauma and poverty.

For some, an HIV diagnosis signaled death and an end to the future they had imagined for themselves. While for others, diagnosis was a form of redemption and a second chance at life.

Regardless of how HIV altered their lives, these women, now in their 50s and 60s, suffer from debilitating health problems, a result of living a lifetime with HIV and the toxic effects of long-term medication use. Many rely on fragmented public safety nets and will need even more health and disability benefits as they age.

While public health officials and politicians are focused on ending HIV in the next decade, very few resources are available to those already living and aging with HIV. Amid the uncertainty that life with HIV brings, African-American women, like those featured here, live with hope and strength. “I’m a survivor,” Harrison told me.

‘I didn’t care what happened to me’

Marcella Wright was born in Washington, D.C. in 1943. She has suffered from debilitating asthma for as long as she can remember. When she was growing up, her neighbors grew wild cannabis and treated her with the vapor. She eventually learned to smoke cannabis to ease the pain of her asthma. She later added alcohol to the mix.

After graduating from high school, she found out that her boyfriend of two years was going to marry an older woman. “After that I didn’t give a damn. I didn’t care what happened to me.”

She became pregnant by a man who would eventually end up in jail, and she gave birth in a home for unwed mothers. She recalled: “I had the baby all alone in the cold. It seemed like one of the most horrifying moments of my life. And I have had guns to my head, I have been choked, and all that. But this particular time, having this baby. All alone.”

Wright was forced to marry her son’s father, and the relationship became abusive. She turned to crack cocaine to cope and became hooked. “You wanted to do the right thing because you’re a mom and you got this damn job you have to get to,” she said. “But you didn’t have any control. You wanted it all the damn time.”

She lost her job and became homeless.

She began to get sick. Even though she knew something was seriously wrong, she was either too high or too scared to go the hospital. She decided to get clean in 1989 for her children. A few years later, she found out that she had HIV.

She was recruited into one of the earliest treatment programs for people living with HIV. She was the only woman when she enrolled. Most of the other participants who began the program with her, mainly gay men, have since died.

Wright’s experience was transformative. “If it wasn’t for them I may not have accepted this situation,” she stated. “They just did everything that I expected everyone to do all my life – take care of me.”

She also credits her faith in God for getting her here. “He allowed me to know that this is just a journey,” she stated. “That is what keeps me.”

‘Real life stories of pain’

“I have a lot of stories,” said Toya Tolson. “They are real-life stories of pain.”

She became pregnant when she was in 10th grade. Her son was born prematurely, and he died right after his birth. She remembers holding him. “I have his birth and his death certificates,” she said between tears.

She coped by turning to drugs, mainly marijuana and love boat, a street drug made of marijuana dipped in a toxic chemical like formaldehyde, PCP, or both. It can cause severe brain damage and even death. She didn’t care. “I was getting high,” she said. “I was selling. I was my best customer.”

Eventually she became homeless. Alone on the streets, she became numb to feelings. “I put myself in a lot of dangerous situations,” she said. “It was just about survival.”

She was involved with a lot of strangers. “They weren’t relationships. They were sexual activities when I was out in the streets. I was in a confused state of mind. Where I probably encountered AIDS.”

What she really wanted was affection and attention, things that she felt like were always missing from her life. “I wanted to be loved. I wanted just to be around and thought they were my friends. But they wasn’t. They was using me. I didn’t comprehend until it was too late.”

Things hit bottom when she fell into a coma. No one expected her to survive. She spent months in rehabilitation, until she was sent home in 2005. That’s when she found out that she had HIV.

Today, she is thankful for being alive. “Every morning I wake up, I’m more than a moment. It’s a gratefulness. I’m still here. I have a second, an hour, another day.”

‘I thought I’d rather die’

“My life wasn’t what I hoped it to be,” Deborah Dyson said.

Both of Dyson’s parents were alcoholics. Raised by her godmother, her life took a turn for the worse when she moved back in with her biological family. A relative began to rape her when she was 12. Out of fear, she didn’t tell anyone. She turned to alcohol and drugs, both readily available in her home.

Things soon spun out of control. She dropped out of high school. A sister introduced her to crack.

She remembers the first time she smoked it. “That’s when you first figure out how crack works,” she recalled. “Because drinking was a thing I knew how to do, so I just needed to add the drinking to the crack to make that high. When you first drink, you get that good little buzz, so you’re always trying to find it again. That’s what I was doing, trying to find that feeling again.”

Soon, she turned to heroin. She used for 17 years, often out on the street.

Early in 1989, she became increasingly sick. Her friends urged her to get tested for HIV.

“I didn’t know anything about HIV,” she said. “I had friends dying of it but I didn’t know anything. I started taking AZT. I hated it. I got sick of it. I got mad. One day I took the whole bottle of pills and threw them up on the roof. I thought I’d rather die than take this.”

A friend recommended that she switch doctors and clinics, and this change made a huge difference.“ They showed me that I could live. They gave me good medical treatment,” she said.

Being around others with HIV and becoming a grandmother has also helped Dyson be less fearful of death and HIV. “I don’t let anything scare me because I know at the end of the day God has my back,” she said. “I’m not perfect, but I don’t allow a disease to tell me what I can and cannot do.”

The Conversation

African-American women with HIV often overlooked, under-supported

February 20, 2019

Author: Thurka Sangaramoorthy, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Maryland

Disclosure statement: Thurka Sangaramoorthy does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

The face of HIV in the United States has long been white gay men, even though the epidemic has had a devastating and disproportionate impact on African-American communities.

This is especially true among women; 60 percent of newly diagnosed cases of HIV in women in 2017 were African-American. Yet, African-American women’s voices are notoriously absent from the national discourse on HIV.

Largely invisible to a fractured health care system, these women are often breadwinners and matriarchs whose families count on them for support and care.

Treatments to help people who are HIV-positive manage their illness and survive into older age have improved greatly, yet the unique health needs of African-American women living and aging with HIV – estimated at about 140,000 – are often ignored.

While many are actively taking medication and receiving care, some do not know their HIV status. After diagnosis, many have difficulties managing their HIV, which can contribute to their other health challenges.

I have been working on collecting oral histories from many older HIV-positive women in the Washington D.C. area, where I live and research. It is my hope that by focusing on the voices of African-American women themselves, we as a country are able to better understand the profound impact that HIV has had on black life.

HIV and African-Americans

Many believe the HIV epidemic in the United States is nearing an end, in part because increased funding, targeted prevention efforts, and better treatment have resulted in drastic reductions in new HIV-positive cases. Even President Trump, in his recent State of the Union address, discussed his goal of ending HIV by 2030. I am an HIV researcher, and I can say this is totally unrealistic, especially for African-Americans.

Despite comprising only 12 percent of the overall U.S. population, African-Americans represent 43 percent of all persons with newly diagnosed HIV and 42 percent of all people living with HIV. African-Americans living with HIV are nearly 10 times more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS and over six times more likely to die of complications of AIDS than their white counterparts.

African-Americans are also at a higher risk for other health conditions, which can make managing HIV infection more difficult. For instance, African-Americans are twice as likely to die from heart disease and 50 percent more likely to have high blood pressure than whites.

In Washington D.C., a place filled with public health experts and policymakers, the HIV prevalence rate is the highest in the nation, exceeding the World Health Organization definition of a generalized epidemic. African-Americans represent a staggering 75 percent of all HIV cases in D.C.

HIV in Washington D.C. is a regional epidemic, and crosses the jurisdictional border into Prince George’s County, Maryland. The sprawling suburbs of Prince George’s County are well known for their ranking as one of the wealthiest African-American-majority counties in the nation, but with HIV rates that are four to 10 times higher than those of white adults.

The high rates of HIV in Washington D.C. and Prince George’s County reflect a growing public health crisis in the United States, where the disproportionate burden of HIV is increasingly concentrated in the U.S. South. Southern states, where 55 percent of African-Americans live, have the highest rates of new HIV-positive diagnoses, the highest percentage of people living with HIV, and the lowest rates of survival for those who are HIV-positive.

Government investment in the domestic response to HIV tops more than US$26 billion per year, yet these health inequities in HIV for African-Americans continue to persist. These inequities are due in part to abstinence-only funding to schools with large minority populations and HIV-specific criminal laws, which undermine the health and well-being of African-Americans and perpetuate systems of inequity. Systemic racism in resource distribution, such as concentrated poverty and health care and funding disparities is also a significant driver of the epidemic within African-American communities.

Since the beginning of the epidemic in the 1980s, African-American women have carried a large burden of HIV, and more than 60,000 lost their lives. But not everyone died. My project of personal narratives of these women suggest that they live with multiple uncertainties brought on by HIV. Many worry about how their health, disability, and eventual death will impact their roles as mothers, grandmothers, daughters, sisters and wives.

Lives of suffering, strength and survival

Shawnte’ Spriggs’ story is typical of many African-American women living with HIV whom I spoke to. Many suffered trauma and abuse as children. Like everyone, however, she has her own unique story.

“My family stories are not pretty,” said Spriggs, 45, who grew up in northeast Washington D.C., in a neighborhood with open-air drug markets, crime and gang violence. “My mother had a very bad temper. If she had a bad day, or someone teed her off, or one of her boyfriends did something to her, I was abused pretty bad.”

Her father was around only intermittently. She later learned the reason for his disappearances: He was often in prison.

Looking for love and craving protection from her mother, she turned to her god-brother, a caring guardian whom she later married.

Three months into their marriage, beatings began. The first was in the middle of the night. She woke suddenly. Her ex-husband was still asleep but sat up as if he were awake and punched her in the face. They both laughed about it in the morning, as if it had been an accident.

The abuse continued.

Eventually Spriggs escaped the marriage. She moved to another state and created a rewarding life. She even found love again, and remarried. She changed careers. She also became an evangelist, traveling for religious conferences frequently.

In 2010, Spriggs accepted an invitation to speak at a women’s conference in Lynchburg, Virginia. The conference offered health screenings. Some of the women invited her to take an HIV test with them. “Sure, why not?” she thought, wanting to set an example for the young women attending.

The last thing she expected was to test positive.

Her initial reaction was that she was going to die. She researched to learn more about HIV and began to realize that many people in her life probably died of it even though it was being labeled as something else in the community. She was terrified, especially because she feared returning to the pain and trauma from her past.

“I was so afraid of going to a dark place, from my childhood. I know my triggers,” Spriggs said.

She took action, signing herself up for both inpatient and outpatient mental health care, which helped her with her healing process. She attended HIV support groups, where she was the only woman among gay men.

Spriggs counts herself fortunate. She knows that many others have fewer resources, more responsibilities, and a lack of accessible and culturally appropriate care.

FILE – In this March 13, 2018, file photo, President Donald Trump talks with reporters as he reviews border wall prototypes in San Diego. Disputes over Trump’s border wall and California’s bullet train have become mixed together as the feud between the White House and the nation’s most populous state intensifies. The Trump administration said on Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, it plans to cancel or claw back $3.5 billion in federal dollars allocated to California’s high-speed rail project. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci, File)
https://www.sunburynews.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2019/02/web1_122359042-13c40bb8eecb46cdb382467975664597.jpgFILE – In this March 13, 2018, file photo, President Donald Trump talks with reporters as he reviews border wall prototypes in San Diego. Disputes over Trump’s border wall and California’s bullet train have become mixed together as the feud between the White House and the nation’s most populous state intensifies. The Trump administration said on Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, it plans to cancel or claw back $3.5 billion in federal dollars allocated to California’s high-speed rail project. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci, File)

FILE – This Feb. 26, 2015, photo shows a full-scale mock-up of a high-speed train, displayed at the Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. The Trump administration plans to cancel $929 million in U.S. money for California’s beleaguered high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion it’s already spent. The U.S. Department of Transportation announcement Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, came after President Donald Trump last week threatened to make California pay back the money awarded to build the train between Los Angeles and San Francisco. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)
https://www.sunburynews.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2019/02/web1_122359042-0475c1357c8b4a678d9add129005b7d2.jpgFILE – This Feb. 26, 2015, photo shows a full-scale mock-up of a high-speed train, displayed at the Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. The Trump administration plans to cancel $929 million in U.S. money for California’s beleaguered high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion it’s already spent. The U.S. Department of Transportation announcement Tuesday, Feb. 19, 2019, came after President Donald Trump last week threatened to make California pay back the money awarded to build the train between Los Angeles and San Francisco. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)

FILE – In this Feb. 12, 2019, file photo, Calif., Gov. Gavin Newsom receives applause after delivering his first State of the State address to a joint session of the legislature at the Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. Newsom declared in his first State of the State address last week that he planned to scale back California’s high-speed rail project and focus immediately on building 171 miles of track in central California. The Trump administration said Tuesday, Feb. 19, that it plans to cancel $929 million awarded to California’s high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion that it has already spent. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)
https://www.sunburynews.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2019/02/web1_122359042-442576b6856f4aeca55e05c60d3c5faf.jpgFILE – In this Feb. 12, 2019, file photo, Calif., Gov. Gavin Newsom receives applause after delivering his first State of the State address to a joint session of the legislature at the Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. Newsom declared in his first State of the State address last week that he planned to scale back California’s high-speed rail project and focus immediately on building 171 miles of track in central California. The Trump administration said Tuesday, Feb. 19, that it plans to cancel $929 million awarded to California’s high-speed rail project and wants the state to return an additional $2.5 billion that it has already spent. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)
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